Your body paragraphs help your readers understand the main points you are making to support your thesis.
Each paragraph has its own main idea, which can be expressed in a topic statement. (The topic statement can be anywhere in the paragraph but, in general, it is at the beginning.)
In each body paragraph, you should provide explanations, illustrations, and examples of the evidence you are providing. It should be clear to your readers how your main idea supports the thesis; if you think the connection between the main idea of your paragraph and the overall argument may be unclear to the reader, you should make it clear.
The Concluding Paragraph
The concluding paragraph synthesizes the main points in the body of your writing and gives your readers a sense of closure. In general, you start by reminding your readers about the thesis you set out to support in the introduction; however, you should not simply repeat the thesis statement. Restate it in a new way to avoid repetition. Briefly summarize your main points. You can then choose among many ways to conclude, depending on what is appropriate for your topic.
For example, you can explain how the main ideas fit together and support the thesis, emphasize how your thesis holds true in view of the information you presented, ask a rhetorical question that leads your readers to reflect on the topic, warn the reader about the consequences of failing to act on the information you presented, and so on. See Figure 1 for what you can include and what you should avoid when writing your conclusion.
The Concluding Paragraph
Choose one of these strategies
- Move from specific to general information.
- Move from general to specific information.
Things you should avoid or not do
- Do not introduce any new information that you need to explain or support. That type of information should go in your body paragraphs.
- Avoid drastic changes in your voice.
- Do not get overly sentimental or appeal to emotions. Doing that weakens your argument.
- Keep a similar tone to the rest of the passage.
What to include in your conclusion
- The topic sentence in your conclusion points back to the thesis statement.
- Do not just repeat the thesis stament as the topic statement in your conclusion; instead, restate it in a new way.
Supporting ideas and closing thoughts
Use any combination of the following:
- Where possible, connect back to the introduction.
- Summarize the main points in the body paragraphs (if possible in one sentence).
- Explain how the main ideas fit together.
- Explain how your thesis holds true.
- Ask a rhetorical question (which makes the reader reflect on the topic more deeply or under a new light).
- Warn the reader about the consequences of failing to act on the information you presented.
- Help the reader visualize your ideas or solutions in action.
- State your final words on the thesis (but do not introduce new information that you need to support).
- Point out the main lesson that the reader should take away from what you wrote.
- Provide advice on next steps or solutions to a problem (particularly if your writing was about a problematic issue).
- Include a call to action so your readers are left with actions they can take.
- Be creative. Depending on what your topic was, you may come up with some brilliant way to conclude it.
Figure 1: Ideas for how to write a concluding paragraph and what to include in it.
Stage 3. Polishing Your Work
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