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Linguistics is the scientific study of language and its structure. It includes
the study of distinct areas such as phonetics (the sounds of a language),
morphology (how sounds are put together to form words and meaning), syntax
(the principles that determine the structure of sentences), semantics
(how a speakers of particular language create meaning), and so on.
Branches of Linguistics
Linguistics is also divided into branches, each adopting a different approach to
For example, historical linguistics is the study
of how language changes over time
(see Etymology and surprising origins of words).
Sociolinguistics is the study of how social factors influence
language use (e.g., differences in language use by different social groups).
Syntax is the study of the rules speakers use. There are several other branches such as
lexicology, computational linguistics, philosophy of language, descriptive linguistics, and so on.
Linguists typically specialize in one of the many branches of linguistics. As a result,
you will find linguists working not only in universities but also "in the field" and even in
places as varied as companies, the film industry, or governmental agencies.
Prescriptivism versus Descriptivism
Many people associate linguistics with grammar, believing that the linguist's
only concern is with "correct grammar." Prescriptivism consists of
determining "correct" spelling, pronunciation, and syntax. In that sense, prescriptivists
determine what language "should be like."
Descriptivism, on the other hand, focuses on how people
use the language regardless of what grammarians establish as "proper grammar."
For a descriptive linguist, instead of determining whether or not a double negative
construction (such as "You ain't seen nothing yet") is "correct" or "incorrect,"
the interest lies in documenting that both forms occur in spoken language; the interest is
then in understanding who produces such forms and when.
Linguists and Polyglots?
Because linguists busy themselves studying languages, many people
think that they are polyglots (or people who speak multiple languages). However,
not all linguists are polyglots, nor does being a polyglot make you a linguist.
Imagine an American linguist studying aspects of the English language as it is spoken
in the United States. Such a linguist would have no need to learn other languages.
In some cases, depending on the branch of linguistics in which you are working, you may
end up learning another language; after all, if you are a linguist, you are probably fascinated
by language in general.
The point is that it is not a requirement to learn other languages to be a linguist.
For some linguists, speaking other languages may give them insight into whatever
aspect of linguistics they are investigating. Language enthusiasts and polyglots may
gravitate toward linguistics, which leads to the misconceptions that being a linguist and
being a polyglot is one of the same.